Karate Kata - 10 Elements
There are 10 aspects that make a successful kata.
Karate forms are done without any opponents so these elements apply to the person doing the kata.

1. Preparation of the mind - Yoi No Kisin
2. Awareness of attack and defence - Inyo
3. Balancing of power - Chikara No Kyojaku
4. Correct speed - Waza No Kankyu
5. Expansion and contraction - Tai No Shinshuku
6. Breathing and posture control - Kokyu
7. Understanding the target - Tyakugan
8. Demonstration of Martial spirit - Kiai
9. Stance and movement - Keitai No Hoji
10. Remaining completely aware - Zanshin
Forms of Etiquette
    Kata is the name given to the sequences of kicks, blocks and punches practiced in kihon which combine to create modes of defence or attack. They naturally become more complex as the karateka advance up the grading system.
    Kata combines moves that change direction in order to train karateka to defend themselves against attackers from four different directions. They are made up of a series of between 20 and 70 moves which use variations of stepping and turning as a way of visualizing and responding to an enemy attack.
    Each Kata focuses on the transition between moves and techniques, placing emphasis on the dance-like nature of the sequence. Kata build up the attack through several light techniques which climax in a final blow known as the
    kiai point, which is accompanied by a shout aiming to combine the mind and body in the ultimate demonstration of power.
    Most kata are long and complex, so good discipline is needed to build up the strength and memory necessary for development. There are about one hundred different kata forms which may vary between Karate styles and schools, and theymay be applied in several different ways. Advanced karateka are expected to demonstrate an insight into the application of a kata and act out the appropriate tempo and rhythm of the sequence accordingly. Some kata involve using weapons to create patterns of techniques known as
    kobudo kata. Whilst each kata uses a different combination of moves and techniques, all kata are marked by five characteristics:
    Movements and Order
    All kata have a set number of moves: 20 to 27 moves for heian (basic) kata and up to 70 moves in 'tekki (advanced) kata, which must be performed in a specific order.
    Beginning and End
    Each kata follows a particular linear path along the floor but must always end and begin at the same point.
    Compulsory and Optional Kata
    Of the hundred kata forms that exist in Karate, some kata are compulsory and must be tested in grading exams while some kata are optional and may be chosen by karateka for these exams. Modern Karate includes five compulsory heian kata and three compulsory tekki kata.
    Dynamic Kata
    When performed correctly kata acquire the rhythm, beauty and power that distinguish Karate from other martial art forms. These dynamic aspects of kata depend upon the correct use of power, speed and appropriate expansion or contraction of the body.
    Regardless of the kata, the karetaka must bow at the beginning and end of every sequence as an act of courtesy and respect.
    Literally meaning ‘the meeting of hands’, kumite is the term used for sparring, either as a sport or a form of training for self-defence. Kumite draws on the sequences of techniques used in kata and the principles acquired through kihon, applying those techniques and principles with a sparring partner. Sparring puts emphasis upon power and speed but most importantly on good control, requiring the karateka to learn techniques of attack and defence without actually making contact with their sparring partner. There are various types of sparring:
                  Kumite: Can involve contact or non-contact techniques and encompasses kicks, punches, strikes and blocks (see Kihon).
                  Hand techniques used when sparring

                    Shotokan Karate includes 26 Kata or Forms.
                    These are made up of the 15 MAJOR KATA and 11 other.

                    Heian Shodan - Peaceful Mind One
                    Heian Nidan - Peaceful Mind Two
                    Heian Sandan - Peaceful Mind Three
                    Heian Yodan - Peaceful Mind Four
                    Heian Godan - Peaceful Mind Five
                    Tekki Shodan - Iron Horse One

                    Bassai Dai - To Penetrate a Fortress
                    Kanku Dai - To Look at the Sky
                    Empi - Flying Swallow
                    Jion - Name of a Temple
                    Jitte - Ten Hands
                    Hangetsu - Crescent Moon or Half Moon

                    Tekki Nidan - Iron Horse Two
                    Bassai Sho - The Lesser Bassai
                    Kanku Sho - The Lesser Kanku
                    Gankanku - Crane on a Rock
                    Sochin - Preserve Peace / Rooted Stance
                    Tekki Sandan - Iron Horse Three

                    Chinte - Incredible Hands
                    Ji'in - Name of a Temple
                    Ninjushiho - Twenty Four Steps
                    Meikyo - Bright Mirror
                    Unsu - Cloud Hands
                    Wankan - King and Crown

                    Gojushiho Dai - Fifty Four Moves
                    Gojushiho Sho - Fifty Four Moves (Lesser)

                    Other Katas
                    Taikyoku Shodan - First Cause One
                    Ten No Kata - The Kata of the Universe

                    Taikyoku Nidan - First Cause Two
                    Taikyoku Sandan - First Cause Three

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